About the lab

Welcome to the Moral & Social Brain lab

The Moral & Social Brain lab

The Moral & Social Brain lab has been created and is currently led by Prof. Dr. Emilie A. Caspar (Ghent University, Belgium). Our main mission is to uncover the neural basis of (im)moral behaviors. To do so, we seek to understand how humans take agency and responsibility over their actions and how they perceive and feel the pain that they could cause to others. The sense of agency is an incredible ability for humans, probably one that allowed us to achieve critical steps in our development across human history. More than any other animals, humans have transformed and built their environment because they can take credits for their accomplishments. When we perform actions, we are able to recognize these actions as our owns and to take responsibility over the consequences of those actions because we experience agency. The sense of agency and the feeling of responsibility are thus critical neuro-cognitive processes associated with our decisions to act in a « good » or « bad » way. Empathy is also an incredible capacity for shaping and coloring our social interactions as it allows us to understand how others feel. Understanding the feeling of others is of course also shaped by both environmental factors, such as our culture, education or life experiences, and contextual factors. But first and foremost, our capacity to empathize with others is wired deep inside our brains. Empathy is primarily an inner capacity that all humans supposedly possess and which prevent us to hurt others, be it emotionally or physically.

Our current works include the following research questions:

  • What neuro-cognitive mechanisms play a role in preventing individuals from complying with immoral orders?
  • What are the neural basis of the sense of agency and responsibility?
  • How does being in prison impact neuro-cognitive processes involved in decision-making?
  • How is a trauma due to a genocide transmitted to the following generations and how does it impact social cognition?
  • Can we develop efficient tools to reduce radicalized behaviors?
  • Can brain-to-brain synchrony predict prosocial attitudes?

Our research methods are strongly embedded into cognitive and social neurosciences, with a combination of EEG, (f)MRI, and behavioral measurements. But we do not restrict our methods to neurosciences and cognitive psychology only. We value interdisciplinarity to answer our research questions and we currently collaborate with researchers from various scientific disciplines, such as Sociology, Philosophy, Social Psychology, Engineering, Robotics, Law and Criminology. Because of the high societal relevance of our work, we do not only work in collaborations with academics. We also collaborate with NGOs, with international and local associations, as well as with policy-makers. We strongly believe that combining interdisciplinarity and collaborations with both academic and non-academic institutions is a critical way to produce meaningful scientific approaches and to have a global overview of the societal, historical and human contexts surrounding our projects.

Beyond uncovering the neural basis of (im)moral behaviors, another of the lab’s missions is to open neuroscience research to populations that are never approached by neuroscientists. In neurosciences, we usually test the WEIRDs (that are, western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic people), mostly in Europe or in North America. As a consequence, we have actually no idea whether the theories we draw are valid on other populations. In the lab, we want to work with populations that are barely approached by neurosciences in order to have a more global understanding of human cognition and behavior. Some of our projects include inmates, military, former perpetrators and survivors of the genocide in Rwanda and in Cambodia. Working with such populations is a very intense human experience as well as an incredible opportunity for neuroscience research.

If you are interested in our research topics, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us for a Ph.D. thesis or a Postdoc or scientific collaborations and join the adventure!


The Moral & Social Brain lab is equipped to integrate research in humans but also to conduct field research across the world. For this purpose, the lab has the following equipment:

  • Portable EEG systems (adapted to hyperscanning recordings as well)
  • 3T-MRI scanner
  • tDCS/TMS

Top publications

Caspar, E.A., Lo Bue, S., Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama, P.A., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans A. (2020). The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing. Nature Communications11(1), 1-10. (IF=11.880).

Caspar, E.A., Ioumpa, K., Keysers, C. & Gazzola, V. (2020). Obeying orders reduces vicarious brain activation towards victims’ pain. NeuroImage, 117251. (IF=5.902).

Caspar, E.A., Christensen, J., Cleeremans, A., & Haggard P. (2016). Coercion changes the sense of agency in the human brain. Current Biology, 26, 585-592. (IF=8.851).